Further Resources

Alexeew, J., Bergset, L., Meyer, K., Petersen, J., Schneider, L. and Unger, C. (2010). An analysis of the relationship between the additionality of CDM projects and their contribution to sustainable development. International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, 10(3). 233–48. DOI: 10.1007/s10784-010-9121-y

Amazon Web Services Official Blog. 2015. “New Amazon Wind Farm (Fowler Ridge).” January 2. https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/new-amazon-web-services-wind-farm-fowler-ridge/.

Apex Clean Energy. 2014. “The IKEA Group Makes Largest Wind Farm Investment to Date.” Apex Clean Energy. November 18. http://www.apexcleanenergy.com/news/ikea-group-makes-largest-wind-farm-investment-date.

Borenstein, Severin, James Bushnell, Frank A. Wolak, and Matthew Zaragoza-Watkins. 2014. Report of the Market Simulation Group on Competitive Supply/Demand Balance in the California Allowance Market and the Potential for Market Manipulation. WP 251. Berkeley, CA: Energy Institute at Haas. http://ei.haas.berkeley.edu/pdf/working_papers/WP251.pdf.

Broekhoff, Derik, and Kathryn Zyla. Outside the Cap: Opportunities and Limitations of Greenhouse Gas Offsets. Climate and Energy Policy Series. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute, December 2008. http://www.wri.org/publication/outside-the-cap.

Cames, M., Harthan, R. O., Fussler, J., Lazarus, M., Lee, C. M., Erickson, P. and Spalding-Fecher, R. (2016). How Additional Is the Clean Development Mechanism? Analysis of the Application of Current Tools and Proposed Alternatives. CLlMA.B.3/SERl2013/0026r. Prepared for DG Clima by Oko-Institut, INFRAS, Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), Berlin. https://ec.europa.eu/clima/sites/clima/files/ets/docs/clean_dev_mechanism_en.pdf

CDM Policy Dialogue Research Programme, Research Area: Governance,” Chapter 3. Bonn, Germany, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 1 October. www.cdmpolicydialogue.org/research/1030_governance.pdf.

Cornell University. 2014. Cornell Leadership for Climate Neutrality: Strategies & 12 – Month Milestones to Accelerate the Climate Action Plan. http://csc-production.s3.amazonaws.com/2015/01/27/16/20/53/864/2015_01_24PublicClimateActionAccelerationReport.pdf.

Disch, David. 2010. “A Comparative Analysis of the ‘development Dividend’ of Clean Development Mechanism Projects in Six Host Countries.” Climate and Development 2 (1): 50–64. doi:10.3763/cdev.2010.0034.

Dufrasne, G. (2018). The Clean Development Mechanism: Local Impacts of a Global System. Carbon Market Watch. https://carbonmarketwatch.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/CMW-THE-CLEAN-DEVELOPMENT-MECHANISM-LOCAL-IMPACTS-OF-A-GLOBAL-SYSTEM-FINAL-SPREAD-WEB.pdf

“Ensuring Offset Quality: Integrating High Quality Greenhouse Gas Offsets Into North American Cap-and-Trade Policy.” Offset Quality Initiative, July 2008. http://ghginstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/OQI_Ensuring_Offset_Quality_Jul08.pdf

Foley, Timothy G., D. Richter, and Christopher S. Galik. 2009. “Extending Rotation Age for Carbon Sequestration: A Cross-Protocol Comparison of North American Forest Offsets.” Forest Ecology and Management 259 (2): 201–9. doi:16/j.foreco.2009.10.014.

Further Reading on Green Power Claims,” Greenhouse Gas Management Institute Blog Post, March 12th, 2014.

Galik, Christopher S., Daniel deB. Richter, Megan L. Mobley, Lydia P. Olander, and Brian C. Murray. 2008. A Critical Comparison and Virtual “field Test” of Forest Management Carbon Offset Protocols.

Gilbertson, Tamara. 2009. “How Sustainable Are Small-Scale Biomass Factories? A Case Study from Thailand.” In Upsetting the Offset: The Political Economy of Carbon Markets, edited by Steffen Böhm and Siddhartha Dabhi, 57–71. London, UK: MayFly Books.

Gillenwater, M., 2008a. “Taking green power into account,” Environmental Finance, October.

Gillenwater, M., 2008b. “Redefining RECs (Part 1): Untangling attributes and offsets,” Energy Policy, Volume 36, Issue 6, Pages 2109-2119.

Gillenwater, M., 2008c. “Redefining RECs (Part 2): Untangling certificates and emission markets,” Energy Policy, Volume 36, Issue 6, June 2008, Pages 2120-2129.

Gillenwater, M., 2013. “Probabilistic decision model of wind power investment and influence of green power market.” Energy Policy, 63, pp.1111–1125.

Gillenwater, Michael. 2011. What Is Additionality? (In 3 Parts). Discussion Paper. Silver Spring, MD: Greenhouse Gas Management Institute. http://ghginstitute.org/2012/01/25/how-do-you-explain-additionality/.

Gillenwater, M. (2012). What is wrong with ‘real’ carbon offsets? Greenhouse Gas Measurement and Management, 2(4). 167–70. DOI: 10.1080/20430779.2013.781879

Gillenwater, M., Lu, X. & Fischlein, M., 2014. “Additionality of wind energy investments in the U.S. voluntary green power market.” Renewable Energy, 63, pp.452–457.

Gillenwater, M. and Seres, S. (2011). The Clean Development Mechanism: a review of the first international offset programme. Greenhouse Gas Measurement and Management, 1(3–4). 179–203. DOI: 10.1080/20430779.2011.647014

Google. 2013a. “Expanding Renewable Energy Options for Companies Through Utility-Offered ‘Renewable Energy Tariffs.’” http://static.googleusercontent.com/media/www.google.com/en/us/green/pdf/renewable-energy-options.pdf.

Haya, B. and Parekh, P. (2011). Hydropower in the CDM: Examining Additionality and Criteria for Sustainability. ERG-11-01. Energy and Resources Group, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA. http://erg.berkeley.edu/working_paper/index.shtml

Haya, Barbara, Malini Ranganathan, and Sujit Kirpekar. 2009. “Barriers to Sugar Mill Cogeneration in India: Insights into the Structure of Post-2012 Climate Financing Instruments.” Climate and Development 1 (1): 66–81. doi:10.3763/cdev.2009.0002.

Henders, Sabine and Madelene Ostwald. 2012. “Forest Carbon Leakage Quantification Methods and their Suitability for Assessing Leakage in REDD.” Forests 3(1): 33-58.

“Implementing Energy Efficiency Obligation Schemes,” Research Report, Task XXII of the International Energy Agency, Demand Side Management Programme, Prepared by: The Regulatory Assistance Project June 2012. http://www.raponline.org/document/download/id/5003

International Carbon Reduction & Offset Alliance (2019). ICROA’s position on scaling private sector voluntary action post-2020. , July 2019. https://www.icroa.org/resources/Documents/ICROA_Voluntary_Action_Post_2020_Position_Paper_July_2019.pdf

IPCC (2018). Global Warming of 1.5 °C. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. http://www.ipcc.ch/report/sr15/

Is Your Green Power Really Just Green Washing?” Greenhouse Gas Management Institute Blog Post, March 12th, 2014.

Jacobson, D.A., 2007. Increasing the value and expanding the market for renewable energy and energy efficiency with clean air policies. Environmental Law Reporter 37, 10135-10143.

Joos, F., Roth, R., Fuglestvedt, J. S., Peters, G. P., Enting, I. G., et al. (2013). Carbon dioxide and climate impulse response functions for the computation of greenhouse gas metrics: a multi-model analysis. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13(5). 2793–2825. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-2793-2013

Kartha, S., Caney, S., Dubash, N. K. and Muttitt, G. (2018). Whose carbon is burnable? Equity considerations in the allocation of a “right to extract”. Climatic Change, 150. DOI: 10.1007/s10584-018-2209-z

Kollmuss, Anja, and Jürg Füssler. 2015. “Overview of Carbon Offset Programs.” World Bank. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/21353/COP_eBook.pdf?sequence=1.

Kollmuss A, Lazarus M. (2010). Buying and Cancelling Allowances as an Alternative to Offsets For the Voluntary Market: A Preliminary Review of Issues and Options. OECD Environment Working Paper No. 21.

Kollmuss, A. and Lazarus, M. (2010). Industrial N2O Projects Under the CDM: The Case of Nitric Acid Production. SEI Working Paper WP-US-1007. Stockholm Environment Institute – U.S. Center. http://www.sei-international.org/publications?pid=1636

Kollmuss, A., Schneider, L. and Zhezherin, V. (2015). Has Joint Implementation Reduced GHG Emissions? Lessons Learned for the Design of Carbon Market Mechanisms. http://sei-us.org/publications/id/550

Kolstad, C., Urama, K., Broome, J., Bruvoll, A., Cariño-Olvera, M., et al. (2014). Chapter 3: Social, economic and ethical concepts and methods. In Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Edenhofer, O., Pichs-Madruga, R., and Sokona, Y. (eds). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York. 173–248. https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg3/

Kreibich, N. and Obergassel, W. (2019). The Voluntary Carbon Market: What May Be Its Future Role and Potential Contributions to Ambition Raising? German Emissions Trading Authority (DEHSt) at the German Environment Agency. https://epub.wupperinst.org/frontdoor/deliver/index/docId/7396/file/7396_Carbon_Market.pdf

Lazarus, M., Erickson, P. and Spalding-Fecher, R. (2012). Transitioning Away from Large-Scale Power Projects: A Simple and Effective Fix for the CDM? SEI Policy Brief. Stockholm Environment Institute – U.S. Center, Seattle, WA. http://www.sei-international.org/publications?pid=2204

Lee, Carrie M., and Michael Lazarus. 2013. “Bioenergy Projects and Sustainable Development: Which Project Types Offer the Greatest Benefits?” Climate and Development 0 (0): 1–13. doi:10.1080/17565529.2013.812951.

Lee, Carrie M., Michael Lazarus, Gordon R. Smith, Kimberly Todd, and Melissa Weitz. 2013. “A Ton Is Not Always a Ton: A Road-Test of Landfill, Manure, and Afforestation/reforestation Offset Protocols in the U.S. Carbon Market.” Environmental Science & Policy 33 (November): 53–62. doi:10.1016/j.envsci.2013.05.002.

Murray, B. C., Galik, C. S., Mitchell, S. and Cottle, P. (2012). Alternative Approaches to Addressing the Risk of Non-Permanence in Afforestation and Reforestation Projects under the Clean Development Mechanism. Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions, Duke University

Offset Quality Initiative (2008). Ensuring Offset Quality: Integrating High Quality Greenhouse Gas Offsets into American Cap-and-Trade Policy. The Climate Trust, Pew Center on Global Climate Change, California Climate Action Registry, Environmental Resources Trust, Greenhouse Gas Management Institute and The Climate Group. https://ghginstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/OQI_Ensuring_Offset_Quality_Exec_Sum_Jul08.pdf

Offset Quality Initiative, 2009. “Maintaining Carbon Market Integrity: Why Renewable Energy Certificates Are Not Offsets”, June.

Open Letter on Scope 2 GHG Reporting: For a “True and Fair” Representation of Corporate Actions and Emissions,” 10 December 2013.

Pearson, Timothy R.H., Sandra Brown, and Kenneth Andrasko. 2008. “Comparison of Registry Methodologies for Reporting Carbon Benefits for Afforestation Projects in the United States.” Environmental Science & Policy 11 (6): 490–504. doi:16/j.envsci.2008.06.004.

Ruthner, L., Johnson, M., Chatterjee, B., Lazarus, M., Fujiwara, N., Egenhofer, C., du Monceau, T. and Brohe, A. (2011). Study on the Integrity of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). AEA Technology for the EU Commission

Schneider, L. (2009). Assessing the additionality of CDM projects: practical experiences and lessons learned. Climate Policy, 9(3). 242–54. DOI: 10.3763/cpol.2008.0533

Schneider, L., Broekhoff, D., Mealey, T. and Soparkar, I. (2019). Avoiding Double Counting for CORSIA. Carbon Mechanisms Review, no. 3. 19–25.

Schneider, Lambert, and Martin Cames. 2014. “Options for Continuing GHG Abatement from CDM and JI Industrial Gas Projects. Oeko Institute.” Oeko Institute. http://www.oeko.de/oekodoc/2030/2014-614-en.pdf.

Schneider, L., Duan, M., Stavins, R., Kizzier, K., Broekhoff, D., et al. (2019). Double counting and the Paris Agreement rulebook. Science, 366(6462). 180–83.

Schneider, L., Kollmuss, A. and Lazarus, M. (2015). Addressing the risk of double counting emission reductions under the UNFCCC. Climatic Change, 131(4). 473–86. DOI: 10.1007/s10584-015-1398-y

Schneider, L. and La Hoz Theuer, S. (2019). Environmental integrity of international carbon market mechanisms under the Paris Agreement. Climate Policy, 19(3). 386–400. DOI: 10.1080/14693062.2018.1521332

Schneider, L., Lazarus, M. and Kollmuss, A. (2010). Industrial N2O Projects Under the CDM: Adipic Acid – A Case of Carbon Leakage? SEI-US Working Paper WP-US-1006. Stockholm Environment Institute – U.S. Center, Somerville, MA. http://www.sei-international.org/publications?pid=1621

Schneider, L. Perverse incentives under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM): an evaluation of HFC-23 destruction projects. Climate Policy 11, 851–864 (2011)

Spalding-Fecher, R., Achanta, A. N., Erickson, P., Haites, E., Lazarus, M., Pahuja, N., Pandey, N., Seres, S. and Tewari, R. (2012). Assessing the Impact of the Clean Development Mechanism. http://www.cdmpolicydialogue.org/research/1030_impact.pdf

“State Energy Efficiency Resource Standards (EERS),” American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, April 2014. http://www.aceee.org/files/pdf/policy-brief/eers-04-2014.pdf

Sutter, Christoph, and Juan Carlos Perreno. 2007. “Does the Current Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Deliver Its Sustainable Development Claim? An Analysis of Officially Registered CDM Projects.” Climatic Change 84 (1): 75–90. doi:10.1007/s10584-007-9269-9.

The Duke Carbon Offsets Initiative. 2014. Duke Carbon Offsets Initiative 2014 Annual Report. Duke University. http://sustainability.duke.edu/carbon_offsets/resources/AnnualReport_2014.pdf.

Trexler, M. C. (2019). Fixing Carbon Offsets: Today’s Carbon Offset Standards Undermine the Environmental Integrity of Carbon Markets; We Can Do (Much!) Better. The Climatographers. https://climatographer.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/2019-Trexler_Fixing-Carbon-Offsets.pdf

Trexler, M. and Schendler, A. (2015). Science-Based Carbon Targets for the Corporate World: The Ultimate Sustainability Commitment, or a Costly Distraction? Journal of Industrial Ecology. n/a-n/a. DOI: 10.1111/jiec.12311

UNFCCC CDM quantification methodologies: http://cdm.unfccc.int/DOE/scopes.html

UNFCCC Issues arising from the implementation of potential project activities under the clean development mechanism: the case of incineration of HFC-23 waste streams from HCFC-22 production (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 2005); http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2005/tp/eng/01.pdf

University of California. 2014. “UC to Purchase Solar Energy, Partner with Frontier Renewables.” September 8. http://www.universityofcalifornia.edu/press-room/uc-make-large-purchase-solar-energy-partner-frontier-renewables.

Voluntary Carbon Market Working Group (2019). Envisioning the voluntary carbon market post-2020. , June 2019. https://www.goldstandard.org/sites/default/files/documents/2019_06_envisioning_the_vcm_statement_consultation_0.pdf

Wal-Mart. 2014. 2014 Investor CDP Information Request Response. CDP. https://www.cdp.net (Requires free registration to access).

Wara, M. and Victor, D. G. (2008). A Realistic Policy on International Carbon Offsets. Program on Energy and Sustainable Development Working Paper, 74. Stanford University, Stanford, CA. http://pesd.stanford.edu/publications/a_realistic_policy_on_international_carbon_offsets/

Warnecke, C., Schneider, L., Day, T., Theuer, S. L. H. and Fearnehough, H. (2019). Robust eligibility criteria essential for new global scheme to offset aviation emissions. Nature Climate Change, 9(3). 218. DOI: 10.1038/s41558-019-0415-y

Warnecke, C., Wartmann, S., Höhne, N. and Blok, K. (2014). Beyond pure offsetting: Assessing options to generate Net-Mitigation-Effects in carbon market mechanisms. Energy Policy, 68. 413–22. DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2014.01.032

World Bank State and Trends of Carbon Pricing 2014: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2014/05/19572833/state-trends-carbon-pricing-2014.